Orlich, G; Komor, E: Phloem loading in ricinus cotyledons - sucrose pathways via the mesophyll and the apoplasm, Planta, 187, 460-474 (1992)
"Ricinus communis cv. Carmencita seedlings with their cotyledons incubated in sucrose solution and their hypocotyls cut to induce exudation of phloem sap, constitute a system of sucrose fluxes into and out of the cotyledons. This system was characterized with respect to quasi-steady-state conditions of sucrose uptake and export and then used to investigate the pathways of sucrose during phloem loading. The redistribution of C-14-labelled internal sucrose between the three ""compartments"", cotyledons (mesophyll), exudate (sieve tubes) and incubation medium (cell-wall space), was measured in the presence or absence of external non-labelled sucrose. It was found that mesophyll-derived labelled and external sucrose compete at uptake sites in the apoplasm. On the basis of the specific radioactivity of sucrose which reflects the proportionate intermixture of mesophyll-derived and external sucrose in the three ""compartments"", it was determined that about 50% of the sucrose exported is loaded directly from the apoplasm, while the other half takes the route via the mesophyll. It was confirmed that mesophyll-derived sucrose is released into the apoplasm, so that the existence of an indirect apoplasmic loading pathway is established. Calculations depending on the concentration gradients of labelled and non-labelled sucrose in the cell-wall space are presented to quantify tentatively the proportions of direct and indirect apoplasmic as well as symplasmic loading."

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